The Art and Science of Alfred

Hello there!  Alfred is super excited to see you, and look at how curious he is.  Do you own a cat or dog?  Because he seems to think you smell good. (stay back Alfred, be nice).  Here we go, I’ve got a nice ball of cheese and bacon here.  He’ll love it.  Here Alfred, go get it!

 

as_alfred-copy

 

While Alfred gets the ball, I can share this lovely disclaimer.  Que elevator music…

I do the best I can with research, but I definitely don’t claim to be an expert.  I try my best to keep up to date, and all my illustrations reflect this. (thank you internets, and to all hard-working paleo-nerds who are kind enough to make your papers open source!) 😀

That said, all the drawings in the A&S post series are quick doodles to illustrate a point, with not as much reference as I usually use, so there are plenty of inaccuracies for you to point out for me. 😉

Thank you disclaimer, you can go bother someone else now. 😛 Elevator music fades out…Oh and here comes Alfred!  Looks like he wants more…

 

There we go, good boy Alfred!

Now Alfred here is an Allosaurus.  He’s young, so only about 12 feet long so far, but he’ll grow to be a lot bigger.  Not as big as his wild cousins though, a few of them could be as big as T-rex! (very few, gotta be old to get that big, and most dinos have a live fast, die young policy)

 

1. On Scaly Skin vs. Feathers

So you see Alfred here has these lovely bright yellow and forest green scales, the colors of youth. (They’ll mellow out a bit when he gets older, like monitor lizards do)

Also like a monitor lizard, you’ll notice that most of Alfred’s scales are quite small, with a rather pebbly texture.  They get a bit larger and thicker on his back, which is good since adult Allosaurus tend to get into quite a lot of tussles with each other.  But most of his scales have that nice cobblestone look to them.

Like this guy, remember him from last week’s post on feathers and scales?

komodo-dragon-58396_640

Short answer as to why Alfred has scales…there’s a young Allosaurus with preserved scales somewhere on it’s body.  (Unfortunately the report didn’t say where)

Long answer was so long I made a post out of it…To Feather or Not to Feather Your Dinosaur, That is the Question.  (The komodo dragon above was laying around in that post.  So was this gal, she’s a monitor lizard. 🙂 )

monitor-205101_640
“Hi!”

 

2. Getting Comfy…

lazy-alfred-copy
*happy sigh* Oh look…nom? -Alfred

Looks like Alfred’s all worn out from chasing after that giant, cheesy bacon-ball.  He hasn’t quite grown into his adult silhouette yet.  He’s still young enough to think he can chase after stuff, but he’s starting to get to an age where it’s getting hard to make those quick turns.

When he fills out his more barrel-chested adult figure, he’ll be spending quite a bit of his leisure hours (think energy-efficient) laying around.  Since his body is a bit taller than it’s wide (more lanky cat than double-wide gator), it’s more relaxing to be lounging on his side.

Of course, that doesn’t mean he can’t do other things to relax, even things that may surprise us (ever seen a large horse roll?  It’s hilarious 😀 ).

sit
Sit!
down
Down!
roll-over
Good boy! Roll Over!

 

Oh, and here’s that horse… 😀 I can totally picture some “duckbill” dino doing this.

 

3. Where are His Teeth?!

Show us your teeth copy.jpg
Clearly I need more practice drawing people.  Thank you for volunteering Pete. 🙂

 

I hear ya, I wondered the same thing when I looked up pictures of Komodo Dragons and monitor lizards.  But wait, what does that have anything to do with it?

Pete will help us out here.  I know Alfred looks a little awkward, but he’s actually quite comfy.  Ah- I’ll let Pete tell you the rest…

“Thank you.  Yes, Alfred is quite at ease here.  I’m not heavy to him at all, and he weighs at least a good 300 pounds at this age.  So he doesn’t mind a bit.

I’m tilting his head back very gently- show us your teeth there Alfred, that’s it, nice and easy.

See this is the biggest difference between a domestic Allosaurus like Alfred here and a wild one.  Look how completely relaxed he is.  He’s not fighting me at all, and even his eyes are closed, look at that. (Alfred makes a gurgly, kinda purring sound in his throat)

Anyhow, I’m holding onto his lips here so I keep my fingers out of his mouth.  My fingers can look a bit like treats, so I’ll be sure to keep them right at the edge here, at the gums.

All this, the lips, the gums, the saliva- it all keeps his teeth nice and moist.  Dinosaurs have a healthy coat of enamel on their teeth, same as your teeth, and the key to healthy teeth is to keep them moist.  Even better if you can give your teeth a constant bath of saliva.

Yes, drool is essential to healthy teeth!

Now Alfred will lose his teeth and grow new ones, just like crocodiles and alligators do, but if you look closely at these teeth-they’re serrated.  They’re like steak knives- not like the cone-like teeth of crocodiles.

Thank you Alfred, you’ve been quite patient.  Here’s some jerky. 

But crocodiles don’t need serrated teeth.  They’re eating different things, they have a different habitat, and different diet, they’re eating in a completely different way.  Alfred has teeth like a bone saw.

Ever cut a roast turkey with an electric knife?  That’s what Alfred’s teeth are doing when he eats, so they need to stay sharp, and they need to be strong in his mouth.  So the gums hold his teeth, and his lips keep them nice and moist so they stay strong and don’t get brittle.”

Thank you Pete, and Alfred.  Just for comparison, here is a crocodile monitor lizard.

home_4.jpg
Looks friendly doesn’t he?  Image not my own, but I couldn’t find who to credit.  If you know who I should credit, please let me know. 🙂

My first thought, “Where are the teeth?!”  Then I noticed those sharp white triangular things inside the lip.  Also interesting is that it looks like there are pockets for the bottom teeth to slip into. 🙂  Here’s the skull of the same animal…

croc-monitor-skull-500
Image not mine.  If you know who I should credit, I’d love to give credit where credit is due.  Thank you. 🙂

They look quite different from the other picture don’t they?  Almost, shall I say, dinosauresqe?  Take a look at an Allosaurus skull. 😀

amnh-allosaurus-skull-entrance-hall.jpg
Image copyright to Jason R. Abdale.  

The one and only skull I could find that doesn’t have its teeth halfway falling out of their sockets (it happens when the dead critter decays).  Jason has many more pictures of the Allosaurus mounts at the American Museum of Natural History, and I’d highly recommend you check out his blog post.  You’ll also discover all my errors and where I need to fix Alfred. 😀

 Quick Question: Help me find what I need to fix!  If you wouldn’t mind checking out this blog post on Allosaurus, you’ll get to see some great pictures of excellent mounts, and you’ll see what I have to correct in my illustrations of Alfred.  

I’d love to hear from you in the comments!  I’ll be posting a comment on how many I find, and let’s see if we come up with the same ones or more. 😀

P.S.- You can always hop over the the A&S page to pick out who you want to see next! 🙂

The Art & Science of Terry

Hi there!  Terry is here with us today, a rather odd looking critter isn’t she?  If I asked you to tell me what she is, what would your answer be?  Flying dinosaur?  Terradactyl?  Pterosaur?

 

as_terry-copy

 

If you said Pterosaur then clearly you’ve done your homework.  If not, don’t feel bad (I’m not pointing fingers), because the sad fact is that most books, movies, toys, and pretty much anything to do with dinosaurs always lump Terry and her many relatives into the same pile.

Terry is a Pterosaur (Don’t mind the P there, it’s confusingly silent), a group of flying reptiles closely related to dinosaurs.  To be specific, her wild cousins are Pterodactylus kochi.  Pterodactylus is the pterosaur, where we get the name for the whole group.  So now you know she’s special. 😀

 

1. Is that…fur?

Terry, like all pterosaurs, is covered in a fuzzy layer of pycnofibers.  They’re made of the same keratinous proteins as our hair and fingernails.  But they appear to be hollow inside, which makes them much more like feathers than fur.

I say “appear to be”, because not everyone agrees.  Most of the fossils are a bit squashed, and even the 3d fossils can be hard to tell if what fills the space inside was part of the living animal or just more of the fossil (or a part of decomposition after the critter died, but before it fossilized).

Last week we saw the basic structure of a feather.  If pycnofibers are indeed hollow, then that could mean that they are similar in structure to feathers.

Terry and her many relatives are related to dinosaurs in the same way that crocs are related to dinosaurs (They are all Archosaurs).  A bit like a great aunt.

Since many dinosaurs are known to have feathers of various kinds, it would be pretty significant if pterosaur pycnofibers are determined to be feathers as well.

How significant?  More fluffy dinosaurs!  It’s possible that the earliest dinosaurs had a coat of fur-like feathers. 🙂

 

2. Hard Beak or Fuzzy Snout?

fuzzy beak copy.jpg
Terry & Ron are both pterosaurs, but look very different from each other.  Fuzzy snout vs. hard beak.  The difference in texture of fluffy pycnofibers is my own speculation.  We don’t really know what these might’ve looked like in life.

Now I’m not quite sure where I first heard of the idea of hard-beaked pterosaurs…I think I remember Petrie from The Land Before Time had a beak.  Come to think of it, I guess there are plenty of interpretations with beaky pterosaurs, but I’m not sure how many are based on fossil evidence.

So why does Terry have a soft, fuzzy snout?

The fossils don’t have a beak.  In fact, in several beautifully preserved ones we see only soft tissues, complete with a soft crest and that lappet on the back of head.  There’s a lovely diagram showing how clear the fossil is over at Mark Witton’s wonderful blog.  I’d highly recommend you check it out, because he’s an excellent artist, and an expert on all things pterosaur. 🙂

Terry’s friend on the left is a Rhamphorynchus (that’s a mouthful, sorry, let’s call him…Ron).  Some illustrate Ron and his wild relatives with just the toothless tip of his snout with a beak, but I’ve based mine off of Mark Witton’s lovely illustration.

Honestly, it’s hard to imagine those crazy teeth with any kind of soft tissue, and that seems to be the argument for a hard beak over the bone.

 

3. The original pole vaulting masters

terry-take-off-copy

Pterosaurs had powerful wings, but their legs weren’t really strong enough to jump up to fly like birds.  So does that mean they’re helpless on the ground?

Not at all, look at Terry scamper around!

Pterosaurs were Earth’s first pole vaulting masters.  Their powerful wing-arms were strong enough to push their bodies (even the biggest ones) up into the air.  Mark Witton proposes that even the largest, giraffe-sized pterosaurs could lift off from the ground.  Many could probably take off from the water!

Helpless?  I think, not. 🙂  Here’s a quick video so you can see it in action. 🙂

How is it possible?

Unlike birds, pterosaurs have most of their muscle dedicated to their wings.  Birds need enough muscle in their legs to jump up before flapping, while pterosaurs pole vault into the air with the same power they use for flying.

So no need to jump off a cliff or wait for warm updrafts of air. 🙂

 

Quick Question: Ah, the nostalgia of so many movies and documentaries…I must say I still rather like the leathery, cliff-clinging bats in Fantasia (so many great retro-saurs in that one).  Are there any pterosaurs from books or movies that have colored how you see these animals? 🙂  I’d love to hear your answer in the comments!  

P.S.- You can always hop over the the A&S page to pick out who you want to see next! 🙂

The Art & Science: Steggy

Hello there Steggy!  She’s followed me here because she wants the bucket of tasty fern balls I’ve brought with me.  That works out nicely, since she’ll stay here and munch while we point and chat about her for a few minutes.  Just like when we talked about Ajax last week, I’ll stick with 3 research tidbits for now, to keep things short. 🙂

 

A&S_steggy copy

 

1. Soft or hard-shelled turtle?

Steggy’s a bit smaller than the average wild stegosaurus, but she’s still quite a bit taller than we are.  If you reach up on your tip-toes you might be able to touch the biggest of her plates, the one right above her hips there.

There’s been some speculation in recent years on if these plates were hard and covered in keratin- like a turtle’s shell or cow’s horn- or if the plates were soft and covered in scales or skin.

I did a bit of digging (research wise), and came across this lovely gem of information written by Darren Naish. He cites a paper provided by Christiansen & Tschopp (2010), who reported a continuous sheath-like covering on one of the plates they referred to another spiketail known as Hesperosaurus.

hesperosaurus copy.jpg
Hesperosaurus. A much smaller spiketail, but so close a cousin that there was a bit of disagreement a couple years back if it should be lumped in with Stegosaurus.

So there you have it.  Hesperosaurus is a very close cousin of Stegosaurus, so in the realm of phylogenetic bracketing that makes it more likely that Steggy had a smooth, hard sheath of horn on her plates and spikes.

 

2. Armed to the teeth.

tough steggy copy.jpg
One of Steggy’s wild relatives, a Stegosaurus ungulatus to be exact. We should probably back off.  He doesn’t look too happy that we’re so close.

The same Hesperosaurus described had another very rare insight on spiketails- fossil skin.  As you can see on Steggy here, most of her body is covered in small, non-overlapping scales, called tubercles.  They look a bit like pave stones don’t they?  Now look up here, a bit higher up on her side.  Interesting isn’t it?

 

steggy skin copy.jpg

Steggy has some pretty tough scales.  These large oval scales are called osteoderms, just like the large, hard scales on the backs of crocodiles.  They’re covered in keratin, like our fingernails, and they do a pretty good job as armor.  I’m sure Alfred‘s wild relatives had a tough time munching on wild stegosaurus. 🙂

  • Large, horn plates protect the spine
  • Bony neck armor protects neck from predators and prickly plants
  • Short front legs can bring head lower to the ground (harder to reach) and spiky end up, or push the body up to swivel on powerful hind legs.  Awesome for quick, sharp turns.  No way a hungry predator can get to anything soft and vulnerable if that spiked mace is always between it and the stego.

 

3. She might not be the sharpest rock, but she’s one tough cookie.

 

spiketails copy.jpg
Yeesh, I definitely need to practice these guys more.  Fun fact, there are track ways of stegosaurus in small family groups, with young juveniles with a few adults, or a few “teenagers” traveling together.  🙂

Steggy might have a brain the same size as a dog’s, but she’s not nearly as dumb as movies and the media would have you think.  (I’m looking at you Spike, in The Land Before Time).  I think most encounters would not have ended up like the stego in Disney’s Fantasia (which is totally what inspired my love for them in the first place 🙂 )

With all that armor, and tons of fossil evidence with some serious dino damage on Alfred‘s wild relatives, it looks to me that spiketails had an attitude to match their prickly array of spikes and plates.

Because of that, I’ve given Steggy a  bright warning pattern.  Someone told me it reminded her of a skunk, and that’s exactly what I’m going for.  Steggy’s color is something that says “stay away!”

Good thing Steggy is a calm and peaceful pet then, a domesticated spiketail.  Domestic spiketails have a tendency to be nervous, and spook easily (like horses), but Pete works with her a lot, and hardly anything bothers Steggy now. (horses can be trained like this too)

Just for fun, here’s my reasoning on why Steggy may not be as dumb as you think.  A quick check on Youtube brings up plenty of smart tortoises.  Yep, after discovering that it couldn’t fit through the pet door, this one figured out how to open a sliding glass door.

 

Quick Question: Animals do all sorts of crazy things we wouldn’t expect.  Do you have a story about an animal or pet that did something unexpected?  I’d love to hear your answer in the comments!  

P.S.- You can always hop over the the A&S page to pick out who you want to see next! 🙂

The Art & Science of Ajax

First up is Ajax (hi there Ajax! Give’em a smile), because really he’s the first critter of the lot I ever drew, and he shows up in my sketch book a lot.  Plus he’s just an all around friendly guy, and anyone knows a brontosaurus (ahem, Apatosaurus) when they see one. 🙂

 

A&S_ajax copy.jpg

 

So what’s science and what’s art?  To keep this post short, I’ll cover three main points (there are always more, but we can save those for later).  All drawings in these posts are quick doodles to illustrate a point, with not as much reference as I usually use, so there are plenty of inaccuracies for you to point out for me.  But I do have this great toy model replica to look at when I’m clueless as to how something looks at certain angles. 😉

 

apato toy.JPG
Clearly I have a lot to learn when it comes to photographing these things, but everyone starts somewhere right?  Hehe, and yes, that’s a toy.  Papo’s latest model of Apatosaurus to be exact, inspired by Sideshow Collectibles’ Apatosaurus, which is double levels of gorgeous and ten-thousand times more expensive. 😛

1. Toothy grin, or soft smile?

For starters, let’s talk about Ajax’s smile in the picture above.  There’s a lot of discussion on dinosaur lips-  did they have a toothy grin like crocs, or closed lizard-type lips?

On one hand there’s the study by Ashley Morhardt (unfortunately I can’t find it, so I’m relying on 3rd party sources).  She compared the skulls of prehistoric and modern animals, and looked at the clues left behind by beaks, lips, etc…and her study suggests that sauropods like Ajax had a face more like a crocodile’s than the fleshy lips of mammals.

But…

This article by Duane Nash on the giant canine teeth of saber-tooth tigers (smilodon & relatives) gives some food for thought.  The blog post has all sorts of cool info of what makes a tusk vs. a tooth. 🙂

Ajax’s teeth, like most dinosaur teeth, have a pretty healthy coating of enamel, the same stuff that coats our teeth and makes them hard.  Enamel does best when it’s bathed in saliva 24/7, which is why mostly all animals that have enamel-rich teeth have mouths sealed shut by lips of some sort.

Anyway, Ajax eats whatever he can get a hold of.  He does replace his teeth every once and a while (unlike our permanent set of adult teeth), but still, it takes a while to get a replacement tooth, so he needs to use each set for as long as he can.

With that in mind, I’ve decided to reconstruct Ajax and the other sauropods with closed, lizard-like lips.

It’s one of those things that we can’t know for sure, because even a mummy can’t give you a perfect picture, anymore than a raisin can tell you what a grape looks like.

 

2. How far can he stretch?

Bronty herd sketch_flat

Oh boy, paleontologists have gone back and forth on this one for over a century.  First thin, graceful necks like swans, then BBC’s Walking With Dinosaurs comes out and shows the fruit of research claiming that Ajax & Dippy held their necks out like suspension bridges.  They held their heads and tails in almost a straight line, and were unable to lift their heads higher than their shoulders.

 

ajax neck flex.jpg
He’s really trying to impress you

More recent work has pointed out that if you add space for cartilage between the bones, then the necks of many sauropods had the flexibility to loop in a complete circle.  The brilliant minds behind the SV-POW! team over at svpow.com (always enjoyable to read, but definitely more on the technical side) helped rekindle my love for the long-necked giants by holding their heads high again, and regain neck flexibility by taking soft tissues into account.

 

neutral ajax copy
Ajax noticed something interesting

My latest research just today, I come across a paper studying ostrich necks, and what that means for how far Ajax can stretch.

In short, we don’t really know.  But Ajax would probably have a great deal more flexibility than Walking With Dinosaurs would have you believe.  The bendiest part would be the middle of Ajax’s neck, with the ends less flexible.

I always think that animals are more capable than we usually think, so one of Ajax’s buddies has reached back to scratch at an itch on his leg. 🙂

Oh, and those two in the back with the puffy necks…that’s entirely speculative.  Something weird was going on with Ajax’s neck though, that’s for sure. 😉

 

3. I think we need some bigger horseshoes…

feeding Ajaz sketch copy
Pete bringing Ajax a bucket of fern spores, yum!

Feet, especially the front feet, are usually drawn very, very wrong when it comes Ajax and his relatives.  Many artists will slap elephant feet on them and call it a day.  But take a look at one of Ajax’s tracks…

 

Ajax tracks copy.jpgAjax’s legs are like solid pillers, and all the finger bones are wrapped together to form a fleshy, padded, hoof-like structure.  Only the “thumb” has a claw, which has some limited mobility depending on the species.  Ajax can move his thumb claw up and down a little bit. 🙂

Scientists disagree on how much Ajax could move his wrist.  So how far he has his front foot bent at the wrist is a bit speculative.

I’ve done a terrible thing and made his wrist flexible based on an elephant’s range of movement. 😛

 

Quick Question: Is there anything in the popular media you can think of about Ajax and other sauropods?  What common misconceptions do movies like Jurassic Park and The Land Before Time give about Ajax and his cousins? 🙂  I’d love to hear your answer in the comments!  

P.S.- You can always hop over the the A&S page to pick out who you want to see next! 🙂

Uncharted Waters (all about the big picture. No animal lives on a blank sheet of paper)

Let’s revisit our friend Mr. B from the first post of this series on fossilization (Who’s Mr. B?  Refresh your memory here).  We’ve dug up his bones, put them together, figured out all the soft stuff like muscle and skin, and we’ve got a pretty good idea how he lived…but he didn’t live all by himself on a desert island, or on a blank white sheet of paper (ahem, I’m looking at you, boring sideways diagrams).

 

So how do we figure out about the big picture?  Where does Mr. B fit in?

 

First let’s take a look at old Mr. B…what do we know about him?

  • We know he’s a Brachiosaurus.
  • We found it in Colorado while digging at the Morrison Formation.
  • He’s a very large mega-herbivore, and rare in this particular formation.

This isn’t a lot to go on, aside from the fact that Mr. B would need plenty of plants to eat and water to drink, and lots of space to roam.

 

Who’s in the neighborhood? It would be tough to figure out what makes a Savannah with only a giraffe to look at, so let’s take a look at some of Mr. B’s neighbors.     

 

Biggest plant munchers.jpg

Middle plant munchers.jpg minimuchers.jpg

big boss.jpg

small snatcher_flat.jpg

  • There were also all sorts of other non-dino critters, like flying pterosaurs, several small land and water-loving crocs, all sorts of insects (including termites that built 90ft-tall mounds), fish, frogs, turtles, lizards, crayfish, clams, and even a few egg-laying mammals no bigger than rats.

Now we’re getting somewhere.  We know that this environment has to support several very large herbivores and carnivores, along with a very diverse population of smaller dinosaurs and other animals.  We’ll have to assume that many small and delicate animals were not preserved.

What we can’t really figure out from looking at all these animals is…what where all those giant plant eaters eating?

 

The Green Stuff.  Of course, plants are essential to any ecosystem, and in the Morrison Formation we find stuff kinda like this…

Conifers:

Cypress_Three02
A giant cypress tree in the Tassili n’Ajjer National Park, at the edge of the Saharan desert. Image courtesy of archmillenium.net

 

Ginkgoes:

Tree Ferns:

1950568.jpg
Doesn’t it make you feel like you’ve stepped into a time machine?  These tree ferns are at the Whirinaki Forest Park in New Zealand.  New Zealand is just plain awesome, they should’ve stuck a couple of these in Jurassic Park…image courtesy of fotoditzi (2007)

Cycads:

Horsetails can live just about anywhere so long as there’s a river- even deserts.

Ferns in the desert!  Notice how grass-like the “dead” one looks.

 

Dirt isn’t just dirt.  Sand, mud, ash, sediment at the bottom of the ocean or a lake…they all turn into different kinds of rock.  So what kind of rock a fossil is buried in can tell us a lot about plants, which can then tell us a lot about the local weather.

The Morrison Formation is made of layers of mudstone, sandstone, siltstone and limestone, and is light grey, greenish gray, or red in color. Most of the fossils occur in the green siltstone beds and lower sandstones.

To translate into plain English, this means that the area was an area laced with a few rivers, and had seasons of drought and flood.  Since the area was relatively flat, it would flood and turn into swamp in the wet season, but have dry Savannah during the dry season.

But there was no grass or flowering plants in the Jurassic, so what sort of plants would there be in a Mesozoic Savannah?

africa-192932_1280.jpg
A typical Savannah in the present day.

 

Take a look at modern ecosystems.  In areas that have no grass or flowering plants, what is the primary groundcover?

Let’s take another look at those desert ferns…

 

 

Dead looking and dry during the long months of drought, but give it a little water and it transforms.  The grassy-looking brown fern further up does the same thing.  Dead and brown when it’s dry, lush and green when it rains.

 

SoilCrust_landscape
Photo courtesy of Neal Herbert

Another ground cover…biological soil crust.

Biological what?  (my thoughts when I first read that)

Biological soil crust, or cryptobiotic soil, is a community of bacteria, moss, and lichen that holds moisture, prevents erosion, and provides valuable nutrients for plants (and possibly dinos 😀 ).  It looks all brown and crusty during the dry season, but like the ferns, turns green when it rains.

biological-soil-crust-DINO1.jpg
What looks like rocky soil are actually living communities of bacteria, lichens, mosses, and algae.  Photo courtesy of NPS.gov

One last picture, and here we have something that is probably very similar to what the Jurassic Morrison habitat was like.  Only instead of the flowering shrubs we see here, imagine many different shapes of cycad and bushy areas of dried out ferns waiting for rain…closer to the river we get horsetails, ginkgoes, and giant, more water-loving ferns and tree ferns.

The padded feet of dinosaurs, like camels, kangaroos, and ostriches today, doesn’t break the slow-growing crust underfoot.

crypto7-9-12-thumb-600x400-32004.jpeg
That trail you see cutting through the crust shows us how thick the living layer can be.  The trail is the result of a mountain bike or something cutting through it, which will take hundreds of years to grow back.

 

Quick Question: Now that we have a more complete picture, how do you think Mr. B fits in now?  My guess is as good as yours, so it’s all fun speculation.  I’d love to here your answer in the comments!   🙂

Fleshing out the Bones Series:

Time to Get Wild! (how we can guess about behavior, and how crazy it can get!)

Now we’ve put all the pieces together and figured out what they mean (sort of).  We’ve done our best to cloth the muscle and bone with fatty tissue, skin, and maybe even feathers.  Now we can really get wild.

 

But surely there’s no way to have any clues on behavior?  It’s all just guesswork right?

Well no, fossils can leave behind clues even for how an animal lived.  Here are a few ways we can speculate (or make an educated guess based on fossil evidence) how wild these critters could get. 🙂

 

Bones & Teeth             

  • Teeth can tell us a lot about what an animal ate, and the rest of the skeleton can give clues as to how it ate.  For example: the slender, notched jaw of Dilophosaurus suggests that it usually ate fast, slippery prey.
Image courtesy of Jaime A. Headden (2011).  Check out his blog to see more beautiful diagrams & illustrations, or if you want to look up more detailed info on all things paleontology. 🙂  Qilong.wordpress.com
  • It’s not fool proof though, just look at pandas and fruit bats.

 

  • Sometimes an animal that looks specialized in one thing is just specialized to survive during hard times. Example: seals that have teeth “specialized” for eating krill don’t only eat krill.  They eat everything they can get their teeth on, with the added bonus of pigging out on krill when they can, just because they can.

 

Articulated Skeletons      

  • Sometimes animals are buried suddenly and quickly.  In especially rare cases, these complete skeletons preserve “candid shots”, moments frozen in time by a collapsing sand dune, mudslide, or drifting down into a deep, cold lake.
  • Click on the pictures for more info. 🙂

 

 

Track Ways                                 

dino_09.jpg
Photo courtesy of R. T. Bird
  • There are many more tracks than bones, and they offer a unique look at prehistoric animals in action.  Here are a few things we can learn from tracks…
    • How they moved
    • How fast they moved
    • How different animals interact (like traveling herds, or pursuit of prey)
    • Swimming pterosaurs!  There are many tracks of the flying critters swimming.  Interestingly enough, the tracks only have back paw prints.
Witton 2013 swim traces.png
Image courtesy of Witton 2013

 

Other Trace Fossils        

Coprolite.png
Wikipedia commons

 

  • Fossil dino poo is even better at telling us what a dino ate than its teeth.  The only problem is figuring out who it came from (unless you have a fossil of an animal mid-poop!)
pterosaur_henderson_4090
This little Pterosaur drifted to the bottom of a very deep lake. If you follow the spine with your eyes to just below the blobby rib cage at the base of the tail, there’s a tiny shadow that looks like a cucumber shape. This critter was fossilized mid potty-break. Image courtesy of the Royal Tyrrell Museum of Palaeontology.
fig-4-2x
Here’s a closer image. The little arrows labeled cp are pointing to the coprolite, or fossil poo. 🙂 Image courtesy of Hone et al. (2015)
  • Dino burrows give great insight into the social nesting behavior of some dinos.
  • Nests, teeth marks on bones, and dino bottom prints (true story) are all great clues left behind by living prehistoric animals.  Put together, they offer a glimpse into the animal’s story.

 

Modern Family             

  • Since crocs are living relatives of dinosaurs, and birds are dinosaurs, then they are a great place to look for clues.  Take a closer look, and we may get a glimpse of exactly how strange, beautiful, and wonderful dinosaurs could be.
  • The croc family may look tough and mean, but here are a couple of normal behaviors that show how gentle and social they can be.

 

  • Here are a few funky bird dances.  Bright colors not required. 😉

 

Quick Question: Which was your favorite dancing bird? How do you think looking at modern animals like these can inspire our vision of prehistoric animals?  I’d love to hear from you in the comments! 🙂

 

Fleshing out the Bones Series:

Let’s Put Some Skin on That (how much we know, and don’t know, about the soft stuff)

Now here’s where things get a little muddy.  Bones are easy.  They’re hard, relatively common, and all bones that look about the same are going to have similar functions.  Back-boned critters all kinda have the same basic pattern.  Same with muscle.  The only squishy thing with muscle is determining how much is where, then you can figure out the basic shape on top of the bones.

 

But what about skin?  We’re pretty good at figuring out how a dinosaur works on the inside, but what did they look like on the outside?

Here is where a little mud or volcanic ash comes in handy.

When an animal is buried in soft, fine-grained sediment, then the critter’s skin, scales, fur, or feathers leave an impression.  Just like stamping into soft clay.  With more refined techniques in recovering fossils in the field (or prepping them at the museum), paleontologists are finding more “skin stamps” than ever before.

 

Corythosaurus casuarius skeleton, by Barnum Brown, 1916.

A hadrosaur mummy.  Keep in mind that the animal was most likely dead and already decomposing when it was buried.  We can’t know for sure if it had more fat under the skin than showed here or not.  Notice how thick and muscular the tail base is. 🙂

Photo not mine.  If you know who needs credit, please let me know. 🙂

Corythosaurus skin.

Bell, 2012

More hadrosaur skin impressions.  The impressions that look like a honeycomb are actually impressions of what’s underneath the bumps.  Reminds me of bubble wrap. 😛

040813-nws-skin003.JPG
Photo courtesy of Black Hills Institute of Geological Research

Triceratops skin impression.  No one knows if those larger osteoderms would look just as they do here, or if larger quills or spikes where attached.  Speaking of quills…

File:Psittacosaurus mongoliensis.jpg
wikipedia commons

A beautiful fossil of Psittacosaurus (distant, small cousin of Triceratops) at the Senckenberg Museum of Frankfurt.  We can’t be sure about color, but you can see the pattern of darker and lighter scales.  Notice how much muscle this critter has, and those quills!  A one-of-a-kind find.  Remember my post a couple weeks back about how hard it is for an animal to be fossilized?  How much more amazing that we have something like this?

Here’s a closer look at those quills…

high resolution images of Psittacosaurus tail quills, from the paper studying the specimen

The general consensus is that these quills are a feather-like integument. Here’s what we don’t know…

  • If all species of Psittacosaurus had them (there’s 18, all very different from each other), and if they did, how much & where.
  • If any other ceratopsians had them.  Psittacosaurus was part of a line that died out, so it’s rather unlikely that Triceratops & co. had them.

 

Now that we’re on the subject of feathers…just look at this exquisite fossil of archaeopteryx. 🙂 It never gets old…takes my breath away every time I see it.

Photo not mine.  If you know who needs credit, please let me know. 🙂

Archaeopteryx used to be famous for being the “first bird”, now we know that just about every smallish dinosaur (and even some big ones) where wearing similar outfits.  Yes, most carnivorous dinosaurs are known to have feathers, it’s just a question of what kind, and how much. 🙂

12386.ngsversion.1422035753869.adapt.470.1
Photo courtesy of Institute of Fossil Paleontology and Paleoanthropology, Beijing

I know that looks like fur, but those are fluffy feathers all over this little sinosauropteryx.  Notice the bands of light and dark color on its tail.

Here are some more birdy feathers on a larger dinosaur.

This is Zhenyu- Zhenya- Zen- Oh forget it.  Let’s just say she’s a cousin of those infamous raptors from Jurassic Park.  She’s about five feet long, so closer to the real turkey-sized Velociraptor.  Fully feathered.  Just look at those glorious wings!

Photo courtesy of Stephen Brusatte

Here’s a close up of those feathers.  Notice the full wing in photo D below.  You can clearly see primary, secondary, and covert feathers, just like what you’d see on a modern bird wing.

But wait, it gets better. 😀

Not quite as pretty, but look at figures A, B, and C below.  The bumps that those arrows are pointing to are called quill knobs, and figure D shows us what that means. 😀

Keep in mind that this fossil came from a critter called Dakotaraptor.  This guy was every bit as big as the ones in Jurassic Park.  And it has wings.

Image from paper studying Dakotaraptor.

A prettier reconstruction of Dakotaraptor’s wing.

Photo courtesy to Robert DePalma.

These and other fossils from even larger dinosaurs such as yutyrannus (T-rex’s Chinese cousin) that also preserve feathers, can give us clues for exactly how diverse and widespread feathers are in the dinosaur family tree.

 

The flying reptiles called pterosaurs, for example.

Picture not mine, if you know who needs credit, please let me know.

With fossils like these we can learn about the structure of the wing, and that these animals also had a fur-like coat of feathery fuzz covering their bodies.  No scaly or naked skin here.

 

So there is a lot we do know, but still so much left in the dark.  With bones, muscles, and a few hints of soft tissue, next time we’ll be heading off into uncharted waters.

 

Quick Question: These fossils are all amazing, but there is still so much we don’t know.  Take a quick look at the lion and tiger above, and then look at the skulls below.  Can you tell which one is which?  Leave your answer in the comments, I’d love to hear from you! 🙂

 

Fleshing out the Bones Series:

Here’s the Easy Part (figuring out muscle and other fun anatomy)

They say the dead tell no tales…Obviously whoever coined that phrase never studied the bones of prehistoric animals, because the fossils of dead critters sure say a lot.  Dry bones all kinda look the same, but take a closer look and you can see the clues left behind.

 

Last Monday, we went through a basic rundown on how paleontologists can figure out how to put the bones together.  How they take the bits and pieces they find in the field and build up the skeletons you see in museums.  Now before we move on to the soft stuff I just want to make one thing clear.

Unless it’s something totally new, most dinosaurs don’t have as much guesswork as I implied in my post.

Take Allosaurus, for example.  Tons of bones, from many different animals, gives us a good overall picture of the species and its growth cycle.  So for many dinosaurs, the difference from one skeleton to another is pretty small for the average enthusiast like myself.  And honestly, the skeletons of lions and tigers are almost identical.  We wouldn’t have a clue how obviously different they are without everything on top of the bones.

But I’m getting ahead of myself now.  We’ll come back to the lion and tiger example next Monday. 🙂

So what can bones tell us about an animal?

  • A skull can tell us about how the animal sensed the world around it.  The size and shape of its brain, how good its sense of smell, if it had binocular vision like we do…all that good stuff.
  • Teeth and special adaptations in the skull can give us clues to diet and wacky feeding habits.  Take a quick look at woodpecker skulls and you’ll see what I mean. 🙂
  • The shape of the joints, and points of muscle attachment, can show us how the animal might’ve moved.  It also gives us a basic silhouette to work with.
  • Bumps on the forearm, called “quill knobs”, show where large feathers where attached.  As well as other marks of soft tissue like where crests might attach.

 

These are just a few things bones can tell us, and how can we know this?

Take a close look the next time you eat a chicken drumstick or turkey leg.  The bone is not perfectly smooth, and it has a very specific shape.  There are ridges, bumps, little divets on one side…these are all marks where the muscles and tendons attached.

The chicken drumstick is actually a great example, because the bones of birds and crocodilians can be a sort of Rosetta Stone for translating dino bones.  Birds and crocs are the closest living relatives of dinosaurs, and birds are now classified as a group within dinosauria.

Long story short, the bones of living relatives like birds and crocs are a good starting point for figuring out dinosaur anatomy.  Not perfect, since crocs aren’t dinos, and modern birds fit into a specific niche inside the huge and diverse group of animals we call dinosaurs.  But crocs and birds can help fill in a few places that we would otherwise be clueless about.

  • How much muscle?  Crocs and birds have a different structure to their muscles than mammals.
  • So we know the shape and size of the critter’s brain, but what does that mean?  Crocs and birds today can give us clues.
  • Other soft bits like organs, and how dinos metabolisms worked…looking at birds and crocs can help figure out mysteries in the bones, like how dinosaurs got so big.

But now we’re heading into squishier territory than even muscles.  Bones are pretty solid (for the most part).  Muscles and soft tissue directly attached to the bone is just a matter of translating the markings correctly…but next Monday we’ll dip our toes into the mud and find out how much we know, or don’t know, about the soft outsides.

 

skull-1170772_640

Quick Question: Take a moment to notice all the little bumps, ridges, and dimples in this skull.  Notice that triangular dip at the back of the lower jaw, and the high ridges that make that triangle shape.  Powerful muscles to close the jaw attach here and go through that “loop”, where they attach to the back of the neck and head. This is one powerful critter!  Can you guess what it is?  

Hint: those teeth will tell you it’s not a dinosaur or reptile. 😉 I’d love to hear your answer in the comments! 🙂

Fleshing out the Bones Series:

The World’s Toughest Jigsaw Puzzle

A six-year-old walks down the hall, eyes wide as he stares open mouthed at the skeletons towering high above him.  Dagger teeth, gleaming claws, curving necks and long, sweeping tails…It’s almost surreal how the bones are suspended in the air, as if the skin around them was just invisible.

Of course, now I know about the armature of steel.  How each bone has it’s own pocket to nestle in.  If one bone needs cleaning or repairs, then there’s no need to take down the whole skeleton.  But how do we know what the skeletons looked like?

In the last post, we talked about how unlikely it is to find a complete skeleton, or even a mostly complete skeleton.  If you haven’t read it yet, then check it out, because it’s pretty amazing what happens between dead dinosaur and museum. 🙂

But kid’s books and movies always show the whole dinosaur under some random hill.  It’s gotten downright ridiculous, so that Bob the Builder and his team can dig into a hill, find a complete skeleton of a brontosaurus “standing” in the dirt, and then simply leave it there to be the entrance to their dinosaur themed amusement park.

Convenient.

articulated brachiosaur color copy.png
Every paleontologist’s dream.  Please excuse the ugly sloppiness.  I was practicing speed. 🙂

Truth is, building the complete skeleton is only the first part of figuring out just what these critters looked like.

It’s like the world’s toughest jigsaw puzzle, with a few minor complications…

  • No box with the picture to get a clue on what you’re building
  • No idea how many pieces there are supposed to be, just that there should be at least oh, 2,000 or so…right?  Just how many bones does your average dino have anyway?
  • After a summer spent combing the hills, maybe this is what you end up with…

fossil bits color.png

So what do you do?

Luckily, bones can tell you a lot, especially teeth.  An expert can tell you these are sauropod bones.  Even better, an expert can tell you these belong in the family brachiosauridae .

 

Now here comes the fun part…putting the puzzle together.

You look at all the other fossils in the family.  Maybe there are more of the same “genus”, brachiosaurus.  Maybe these bones are enough to tell which species of brachiosaurus you’re looking at, and you can look at those for reference.  And so on and so forth until you and your colleagues have determined what a complete skeleton of your brachiosaur might look like.

Of course, the whole process is a long, drawn out, very complicated business.  This is just my humble rundown. 🙂

Long story short- except in very few cases where paleontologists discover an articulated skeleton, like the lovely dilophosaurus here- then most skeletal reconstructions have at least a few missing parts, which are then filled in by educated guesses based on closely related animals.

wikipedia commons.

Now that you have all the pieces, how do they fit together?

Knowing where all the pieces go relies on reference to other skeletons, research, and a great deal of know-how on the bones themselves.

Bones can tell us a lot, because the soft and squishy bits that hold them together leave scars.  Knowing how to interpret these scars is where dry bones get interesting, because this is the beginning of figuring out how the animal looked in life.

Next post we’ll talk about muscles, tendons, and all the soft stuff under the skin that we don’t usually see in the museum.

Quick Question: Did you like to see fossil exhibits as a kid?  What impressed you the most about them?  I’d love to hear your answer in the comments! 🙂

 

Fleshing out the Bones Series: